Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine with leakage and is one of the women's most common health problems. The four main types of urinary incontinence are stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence, urinary overflow incontinence, and mixed type. Stress or mixed type: In these cases, there is no significant difference between the force exerted by your pelvic floor muscles and the strength needed to hold a single tennis ball underwater. Urge or overflow type: In this case, there will be an increase in pressure but not enough to overcome the internal resistance created by your pelvic floor muscles. Novamed Bundles https://novamedpads.co.uk/collections/bundle/products/incontinence-bundle-underpads-with-all-in-one Stress incontinence is usually caused by a weakness or dysfunction of one or more muscles that support and protect the urethra. This can be caused by a loss of elasticity in the tissues supporting and safeguarding the urethra, disease or injury to the urethra, or nerve damage. Stress incontinence results from a weakened pelvic floor, which means your pelvic floor is not strong enough to support your urinary bladder. Your bladder has weak muscle tone and cannot contract properly, so you leak urine when you cough, laugh, sneeze, exercise vigorously (and even when you're sitting quietly), lift heavy objects (even empty) and do lots of other standard things that people do every day. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common cause of stress incontinence in women. This occurs when the prostate enlarges, forcing the urethra to stretch and become weak. People with urge incontinence have a poor sense of bladder fullness, called "detrusor overactivity". The bladder does not store urine properly because it contracts too quickly or too often. This can cause either frequent urination or incomplete emptying of the bladder, resulting in dribbling (incontinence). Incomplete emptying of your bladder may also lead to urinary tract infections (UTIs). If your bladder is overactive, it contracts (squeezes) when it doesn't need to or when the bladder is too full. It often contracts when you don't feel the need to urinate and may do so even before you feel the urge to go. This can result in a sudden urge to urinate (a sudden, intense feeling that your bladder has to be emptied now) followed by an involuntary loss of urine. Women affected by urinary incontinence are from all walks of life, including celebrities and public figures. Some women are affected by stress incontinence, and some are affected by urge incontinence. Stress incontinence affects about 20% of women who are 40 years or older, and urges act about 50% of 70 years or older women. Mixed type incontinence combines two types: stress (genito-pelvic) or overflow. An example might include a patient in whom urinary retention develops due to the following: Stress incontinence can happen to anyone as long as they have adequate pelvic floor strength; it's not a physical handicap that results from a medical condition. It can be treated in most cases with pelvic floor rehabilitation and exercise. This will at first likely be under the guidance of a physiotherapist, and a specialised clinic for women with stress incontinence may be advised in the long term. Urge incontinence can occur as a result of urinary retention. A person with urinary retention and urge incontinence probably needs more advanced treatment to prevent worsening symptoms. This might include medications to slow down urges (anticholinergics), bladder training, etc. In many cases, urge incontinence is no different from stress incontinence in terms of how it's treated. The most common causes of urinary incontinence are: Stress incontinence causes between a third and a half of all cases. The other two most common reasons are: Treatments include pelvic floor muscle exercises, biofeedback, and spinal manipulation. The choice of how to treat is based on the person's symptoms, the type of incontinence they have (stress or urge), and the cause. Many people get harmful side effects from treatments such as pelvic floor exercises and biofeedback. Treatments often last from a few months to several years. Pelvic floor muscle (PFMs) strengthening exercises are advised to improve strength in the pelvic diaphragm or pelvic floor. They can be performed at home, and there is a range of such activities, with several muscles targeted by each. Several studies show that PFM strengthening programs effectively treat urinary incontinence; their effectiveness increases with the severity of the problem. PFM training has not been found to affect urge incontinence and is not recommended for treating this type. Biofeedback is used to treat all types of urinary incontinence. The person wears a sensor that measures contractions of muscles in the pelvic floor. The patient is trained in the pattern needed to hold their pelvic floor muscles controlled. Biofeedback has been effective in treating urge and stress incontinence and reducing the number of times a person needs to go to the toilet and their hospital visits. Biofeedback allows for a more natural approach with fewer side effects than other treatments. Pelvic floor exercises have also been found beneficial when carried out under clinical supervision, closely monitoring the pelvic floor contraction patterns. Still, there is no evidence that they are helpful when carried out independently at home.